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Daily-current-affairs / 12 Apr 2024

Introduction to the National One Health Mission



The emergence of pandemics like COVID-19 has underscored the interconnectedness of humans, animals, and the environment, necessitating a holistic approach to public health. This interdependence is evident not only in the impact on human health but also in the health of animals, particularly livestock, as exemplified by outbreaks like lumpy skin disease. Recognizing this critical need, India's government has embarked on the 'National One Health Mission', which represents a milestone in pandemic preparedness and a holistic approach to health.

Background and Objectives

The initiation of the 'National One Health Mission' was endorsed by the Prime Minister’s Science, Technology, and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC) in July 2022. Thirteen Ministries and Departments, alongside key science funding agencies, collaborated to shape this mission, aiming to establish integrated disease surveillance, joint outbreak response, coordinated R&D, and seamless information sharing. This comprehensive strategy targets not only routine diseases but also potential pandemic threats affecting humans, animals, and ecosystems.

Coordinated Efforts and Governance Structure

The establishment of a National Institute for One Health in Nagpur, with the Prime Minister's foundational support in December 2022, serves as the focal point for national coordination and international collaboration. This mission involves the active participation of ministries like Health, Animal Husbandry, Environment, Defence, and several research bodies like DBT, CSIR, and AYUSH. The overarching goal is to foster a collaborative ecosystem involving government agencies, academia, and private stakeholders.

Strategic Components of the National One Health Mission

The 'National One Health Mission' encompasses several strategic components aimed at strengthening pandemic preparedness and addressing health challenges across human, animal, and environmental domains.

     Disease Surveillance and Response

One key aspect of the mission is the development of integrated disease surveillance strategies. This involves joint outbreak response mechanisms, enabling swift and coordinated actions across sectors in response to disease threats. The mission emphasizes the importance of not just human diseases like COVID-19 but also animal-related diseases that impact productivity and trade.

     Research and Development (R&D)

Critical to pandemic preparedness is focused R&D aimed at developing vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Various government departments and research councils, including DBT, CSIR, and ICMR, are pivotal in advancing R&D efforts. Collaborations with academic institutions and the private sector are also integral to these endeavors.

     Laboratory Network and Infrastructure

The mission has established a national network of high-risk pathogen laboratories (BSL 3 and BSL 4) managed by different departments. This network optimizes resource utilization and facilitates a more effective response to disease outbreaks, spanning human, animal, and environmental sectors.

     Data Analytics and Technology Integration

Augmenting epidemiology and data analytic capabilities through the integration of AI, machine learning, and disease modeling is a cornerstone of the mission. These technologies are leveraged to enhance disease surveillance and response, including genomic surveillance from wastewater and other sentinel sites.

Global Implications and Collaborations

'One Health' is a global imperative, as emphasized during India's presidency of the G-20. International cooperation is key to building better surveillance capacity, analytics, and setting up global 'One Health' institutes. The mission extends beyond disease surveillance to address broader issues such as antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and climate change impact.

Multisectoral Engagement and Stakeholder Collaboration

Intersectoral topics like 'One Health' necessitate engagement from diverse stakeholders, including governmental agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, and citizens. This inclusive approach fosters an actionable framework aligned with global health goals like 'Health for All'.


In conclusion, the 'National One Health Mission' heralds a transformative initiative in addressing health challenges with a holistic approach. By integrating efforts across human, animal, and environmental health domains, this mission establishes the foundation for a resilient and collaborative public health framework. Embracing global collaborations and harnessing cutting-edge technological advancements, the mission underscores India's unwavering commitment to 'One Health' principles.

This comprehensive strategy not only aims to combat existing health threats but also prepares us for future challenges by fostering interdisciplinary cooperation and data-driven solutions. The establishment of the National Institute for One Health in Nagpur serves as a cornerstone for national and international coordination, enabling the pooling of resources and expertise.

Moreover, the mission's emphasis on research and development, disease surveillance, and technology integration demonstrates India's proactive stance in addressing health issues that transcend borders. By engaging diverse stakeholders including government bodies, academia, private sectors, and international partners, the 'National One Health Mission' promotes a collective effort towards achieving global health equity and sustainability.

In essence, this initiative underscores India's vision for a healthier and more interconnected world, where the well-being of humans, animals, and the environment are intrinsically linked and safeguarded through integrated and collaborative action.


Probable Questions for UPSC Mains Exam-

  1. Analyze the global implications and collaborative aspects of the 'National One Health Mission' in the context of international health governance. How does India's approach to 'One Health' contribute to broader global health goals?
  2. Discuss the significance of the 'National One Health Mission' initiated by the Government of India. Explain the strategic components of this mission and how it aims to address health challenges across human, animal, and environmental domains.

 Source: The Hindu