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Daily-current-affairs / 01 May 2024

India’s Energy Landscape : Daily News Analysis



Bharat, with its ambitious energy transition targets, stands poised for significant growth and diversification in its electricity sector. With a commitment to the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) submitted to the UNFCCC, India aims to substantially increase the share of non-fossil fuel sources in its installed capacity to 50% by 2030. Moreover, Bharat sets a long-term vision of achieving net-zero emissions by 2070, a goal it is on track to meet.

Renewable Energy Expansion

     Progress in Renewable Energy Capacity: Bharat has made significant strides in expanding its renewable energy (RE) capacity over the last decade. With an addition of approximately 109 GW of RE capacity (excluding large hydro) in the past 10 years, the nation has witnessed remarkable growth.

     State Initiatives and Policy Support: State-nodal agencies have played a pivotal role in driving renewable energy initiatives, gaining expertise, and fostering collaboration through platforms like the Association of Renewable Energy Agencies of States (AREAS). Policy initiatives such as production-linked incentives and domestic content requirements have stimulated domestic manufacturing, while regulatory support has addressed investment risks and spurred demand. Furthermore, schemes like the Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana (UDAY) and the Green Credit Programme have provided financial incentives and assistance for power sector reform, enhancing the ecosystem for renewable energy expansion.

Wind Energy

      As of June 2023, wind energy constituted 34% of the total installed power generation capacity from renewable sources. The nation now ranks as the fourth-largest market for onshore wind installations globally, hosting about 10% of the world’s wind turbine component factories.

     To harness the full potential of wind energy, Bharat has introduced policies like the National Offshore Wind Energy Policy and the National Wind and Solar Hybrid Policy. Additionally, initiatives to establish hybrid plants combining offshore and solar wind technologies are underway, reflecting the government's commitment to promoting renewable energy sources.

Solar Energy

     Bharat’s progress in solar energy has been remarkable, positioning the nation as a global leader in the sector. Solar energy constitutes the largest portion of India’s renewable energy capacity, with a 200% growth in solar capacity from 2018 to 2023. The government’s emphasis on deriving 50% of electricity capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 underscores the pivotal role of solar energy in achieving this goal.

     Bharat has witnessed a surge in domestic solar manufacturing capabilities, with projections indicating a fourfold increase in solar module manufacturing capacity by 2025 compared to 2021. Policies like the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthaan Mahabhiyan (PM KUSUM) and financial incentives for solar panel manufacturing have bolstered domestic production, reducing reliance on imports and stimulating economic growth.

Green Hydrogen

     Green hydrogen presents a promising avenue for Bharat’s energy transition, leveraging renewable energy sources for hydrogen production. With a significant portion of hydrogen demand currently met through fossil fuels, Bharat’s focus on green hydrogen aligns with its renewable energy goals and climate objectives. The National Green Hydrogen Mission, launched in 2021, aims to position Bharat as a global hub for green hydrogen production, utilization, and export.

     The National Green Hydrogen Mission is expected to create around six lakh jobs by 2030, contributing to economic growth and employment opportunities. NITI Aayog’s comprehensive roadmap and policy measures like the Green Hydrogen Standards for India and financial incentives for electrolyzer manufacturing provide a structured framework for advancing Bharat’s green hydrogen agenda.


     Bioenergy holds significant potential in Bharat’s renewable energy mix, derived from biomass and organic waste sources. With biomass accounting for a substantial portion of the country’s primary energy consumption, bioenergy projects have been instrumental in meeting energy needs sustainably. The National Bioenergy Programme and the National Policy on Bio-Fuels provide a policy framework to boost bioenergy production and achieve ethanol blending targets.

     Initiatives like the Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) aim to boost the uptake of compressed biogas (CBG), diversifying energy sources in the transportation sector. Additionally, schemes like GOBARdhan promote waste-to-energy solutions, addressing environmental challenges while enhancing energy security.

Energy Storage Solutions

     Addressing Grid Stability Challenges: Energy storage technologies play a crucial role in ensuring grid stability, particularly with the integration of renewable energy sources. Bharat’s focus on energy storage options like batteries and pumped storage hydropower (PSH) reflects its commitment to optimizing energy systems. Emerging technologies such as flywheels, supercapacitors, and hydrogen offer promising solutions for grid-level balancing and supporting the electric vehicle (EV) sector.

     Boosting Domestic Battery Manufacturing: A robust domestic battery manufacturing ecosystem is essential for Bharat’s energy transition, reducing import costs and dependency on foreign markets. Policies like the National Energy Storage Mission and the National Programme on Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) Battery Storage incentivize domestic manufacturing, fostering innovation and job creation in the battery sector.

Emerging Technologies

     Exploring New Frontiers: Bharat’s focus on emerging technologies like ocean energy and geothermal energy underscores its commitment to exploring diverse renewable energy sources. Initiatives by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) aim to promote research and development in these areas, fostering innovation and industrial growth.

     Harnessing Negative Emission Technologies: Negative emission technologies (NETs), particularly carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), hold promise in Bharat’s efforts to combat climate change. Projects like the carbon capture project led by Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOCL) and Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) exemplify Bharat’s commitment to deploying CCUS technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.


The progress made by Bharat in renewable energy expansion and decarbonization efforts over the past decade is commendable, reflecting the government's commitment to sustainable development and climate action. From remarkable growth in solar and wind capacity to initiatives promoting green hydrogen and bioenergy, Bharat has laid a solid foundation for a clean and resilient energy future. As the nation looks ahead, continued policy support, investment in domestic manufacturing, and innovation in emerging technologies will be essential to realize the vision of a sustainable and energy-secure Bharat.

Probable Questions for UPSC Mains Exam-

1.      How do Bharat's renewable energy expansion efforts, particularly in solar and wind energy, align with its long-term goals of achieving energy security and transitioning to a sustainable energy landscape?  (10 Marks, 150 Words)

2.      What policies and initiatives has Bharat implemented to promote the adoption of emerging technologies such as green hydrogen and energy storage solutions, and how do these efforts contribute to the nation's efforts in decarbonization and climate mitigation?   (15 Marks, 250 Words)

Source- India Foundation