Historical Terms (Part - 3)

Historical Terms (Part - 3)


  • During the Satvahana Dynasty i.e. from 2nd century B.C. to 2nd century A.D., they were special officers called uparakshita who were charged with the duty of building caves etc. for the monks.
  • Buddhists monks, bikshus, brahmanas were at high esteem in the society at that time.


  • Gaulamika was a post that was offered in the administration of the Satvahana Dynasty (2nd century B.C. to 2nd century A.D.).
  • Administration in the rural areas was placed under Gaulamika (village headman) who was also the head of a military regiment consisting of 9 chariots, 9 elephants, 25 horses and 45 foot soldiers.


  • This post was held during the reign of Satvahanas (2nd century B.C. to 2nd century AD). These are troops in the royal service and were the bodyguards of the monarch.

Chauth or Chauthaai

  • Chauth was a kind of tax collected during the Maratha empire in medieval times. It was an important source of revenue for Maratha administration.
  • Chauth was calculated as 1/4th of the standard which was paid to Marathas as a safeguard against Shivaji’s forces raiding non-maratha territories.
  • On the other hand, Sardeshmukhi was an additional levy of 10% of revenue which was claimed by Shivaji on being the Shardeshmukh (overlord).


  • Dam was a small copper coin which was introduced by Sher Shah Suri, who was the founder of the Suri Empire. The Capital of Suri Empire was Sasaram (Bihar). Dam was used as coin between 1540-1545. One rupee was divided into 40 dams.