A recent ‘Cost of Internet Shutdowns Report’ by UK-based Top10VPN
revealed that intentional Internet shutdowns affected 710 million people and
led to an economic loss of about $ 24 billion across the globe in 2022.
34 major shutdowns in 2022; most by any country.
Total cost of internet restrictions was $184.3 mn.
Rajasthan and J&K witnessed major internet outages.
Legal provisions in India
Section 69(A) of IT (Amendment) Act, 2008 gives powers to block
Various governments have used s/c 144 of CrPC & Indian Telegraph Act
1885 to suspend the internet.
In 2017, Temporary Suspension of Telecom Services (Public Emergency and
Public Safety) Rules,were notified.
Internet Shutdown (IS)
The IS is defined as an intentional disruption of internet or
electronic communications for a specific population or location, to exert
control over flow of information.
Only the Home Secretary of the Union /state can pass an IS order.
An officer of rank of Joint Secretary or above, authorized by
home secretary can pass IS order in exigencies.
IS is caused by-
Forcing ISPs to shut down.
Manipulating the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
Blocking all internet traffic to specific IP addresses.