Home > Brain-booster

Brain-booster / 24 May 2023

Brain Booster for UPSC & State PCS Examination (Topic: Lumpy Skin Disease)


Why in Broadcast?

  • The current outbreak of lumpy skin disease started in Gujarat and Rajashthan in July, 2022. After this it had spread to Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Andaman & Nicobar, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi and Jharkhand.

About Lumpy Skin Disease

  • The Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) is caused by a virus called the Capripoxvirus and this is an emerging threat to livestock worldwide.
  • It is genetically associated to the goatpox and sheeppox virus family.
  • It infects cattle and water buffalo through vectors such as blood-feeding insects.


  • Major symptoms include the appearance of circular, firm nodes on the animal’s hide or skin that look similar to lumps.
  • Infected animals immediately start losing weight, will have reduced milk yield and also can have fever and lesions in the mouth.
  • Excessive nasal and salivary secretion are other symptoms.
  • Pregnant cows and buffaloes may suffer miscarriage due to this disease and can die.

History of Outbreaks

  • The disease has been endemic to most African countries. Since 2012 the outbreal has been more rapidly in the Middle East, Southeast Europe and West and Central Asia.
  • Since 2019, several outbreaks of LSD have been reported in Asia. In May this year, Pakistan’s Punjab also reported the deaths of over 300 cows due to LSD.
  • In September 2020, a strain of the virus was discovered in Maharashtra. Gujarat too has reported cases over the last few years sporadically.
  • The point of concern is the number of deaths being reported, and whether vaccination catches up to the rate at which the disease is spreading.
  • According to the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH), of which India is a member, mortality rates of 1 to 5 percent are considered as normal.

Risk to Humans

  • The disease is not zoonotic i.e. it does not spread from animals to humans, and humans cannot get infected with it.
  • The milk produced by an infected animal will be fit for human consumption after boiling or pasteurisation as these processes will kill the viruses, if any, in the milk.


  • The disposal of the dead animals is a major issue as improper handling of the carcasses can cause health and sanitation issues.
  • Proper disposal of the carcasses can include incineration or burning of the bodies at high temperatures, along with disinfection of premises.

Preventing the Spread

  • Successful control and eradication of LSD relies on early detection, followed by a rapid and widespread vaccination campaign.
  • The cattle-sheds should be sanitized by eliminating vectors through application of insecticides and spraying disinfectant chemicals.
  • The infected cattle should be immediately isolated from the healthy stock and the nearest veterinarian should be contacted for treatment of the infected animal.
  • The outbreak to the state government so that the rest of the healthy herd can be vaccinated using goat pox vaccine.