Wetland Conservation - Daily Current Affair Article

The reference

A plan has been prepared by the Delhi Authorities for the treatment of wastewater flowing through the Yamuna River.

Introduction

A plan has been prepared by the Delhi Authorities for the treatment of wastewater flowing into the Yamuna river, in which approximately 1500 million liters of natural water will be treated daily. Thus there will be a decrease in the flow of wastewater in the Yamuna River which will reduce pollution in the Yamuna River.

About the plan

  • It is a unique experiment in itself. Under this experiment, 11 man-made wetlands are being built by Professor CR Babu of Delhi University on a land of about 200 hectares behind the South Delhi Biodiversity Park.
  • In this man-made wetland system, wastewater will be treated. For this, different types of plants are being used. This man-made wetland system will treat wastewater and enter the Yamuna river through the Kilkari drain. Operations have started in one of the 11 man-made wetlands.

What is a wetland?

  • According to the Ramsar Convention, swamp, peatland, artificial or natural, static or moving, fresh or saline, the water area is called a wetland. It also covers the oceanic areas where the depth does not exceed 6 meters at the time of low tide.
  • Thus wetlands are intermediate areas between deep water carrying terrestrial habitats, this is the area that is partially or completely saturated with water.

Classification of Wetland

The wetland is mainly classified into three parts

  • Marine wetlands - Gulf and Strait, coral reef, rocky beach, lagoon, etc.
  • Inland wetlands - lake or pond, delta, creek, etc.
  • Man-made wetlands - aquaculture, ponds, small tanks, irrigated agricultural land, etc.

Wetland conservation

  • In 1971, a high-level intergovernmental multipurpose conference was held in a place called Ramsar (located in Iran on the coast of the Caspian Sea) as a global effort to conserve wetlands. Under this, a framework of national action and international cooperation was set for conservation and rational use of wetlands and their resources.
  • This conference was organized on 2 February 1971, so wetland day is organized on 2 February every year.
  • This agreement entered into force in 1975.
  • Now, there are 171 parties to the agreement.
  • India joined this agreement in 1982.

Obligations of party countries as per Ramsar Convention: -

  • Inclusion of wetlands in the list of "wetlands of international importance".
  • To promote the intelligent use of wetlands and their resources as far as possible.
  • To promote international cooperation in wetlands and shared water systems of the border region
  • Creating wetland reserves.

The state-wise Wetlands under Ramsar site in India

There are a total of 37 wetlands in India under the Ramsar site.

North India

  • Jammu and Kashmir - Wullar Lake, Somoriri Lake, Hokera Wetland, Surinsar - Manesar Lake
  • Himachal Pradesh - Chandratal lake, Pongdam lake, Renuka wetland
  • Uttar Pradesh - Upper Ganges River, Nawabganj, Parvati Agra, Saman, Samaspur, Sandi, Saravai Narwar

West India

  • Punjab - Harike Lake, Kanjali Lake, Keshopur-Miani Lake, Vyas Conservation Reserve, Ropar Lake, Nangal
  • Rajasthan - Sambhar Lake, Keoladeo National Park
  • Gujarat - Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary

Central India

  • Maharashtra - Nandur Madameshwar
  • Madhya Pradesh - Banquet wetlands

Eastern India

  • West Bengal - East Kolkata wetlands, Sunderbans wetlands
  • Odisha - Chilika Lake, Bhitarkanika

Northeast India

  • Manipur - Loktak Lake
  • Tripura - Rudrasagar lake
  • Assam - Deepor Lake

South India

  • Andhra Pradesh - Kolleru Lake
  • Tamil Nadu - Point Kalimar Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Kerala - Ashtamudi, Sasthamkotta, Vembanad

Montreux record for wetland protection

It lists the wetlands on which ecological hazard arises due to human encroachment and environmental pollution. It works only under Ramsar.

Currently, two sites in India are included in the Montreux record:

  1. Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan)
  2. Loktak Lake (Manipur)

Note - Chilka lake was also included in the Montreux record as a result of silt deposition, but in 2002, silt was cleared by government efforts. Thus Chilka Lake was removed from the Montreux Record.

Importance of wetlands

  • It provides resources like food, clean water, fuel.
  • It supports the environment as a controller of pollution, protection of biodiversity, protection from soil erosion.
  • It supports natural activities like soil formation, nutrient rotation, primary production.
  • It promotes tourism.

The conclusion

The wetlands are extremely important for human life. This work done by the Delhi Authority will give rise to a new idea along with cooperation in the environment, which will conserve the river, lake, wetland.

General Studies Question Paper 3
  • Environment and Ecology

Mains Question:-

  • Discuss man-made wetlands? How can it help diagnose wastewater?