The human-animal conflict arising due to dilemma between development and conservation - Daily Current Affair Article


Recently there has been a case of encroachment of Baishan or Gaur into human residential area in Pune.


A male Baishan or Gaur was seen in a human residential area of Pune, Due to which a situation of human and animal conflict is arose, the crowd got uncontrolled. After the initial efforts by the forest department employees to tane it, the male gaur ran towards a nearby area., The situation got started the discourse about the of human .

Reasons of human and animal conflicts

  • As a result of the increasing population, forest resources are constantly being used to meet the need of human beings, due to which there is a huge decline in the forest area.
  • Due to natural and Artificial causes, forest fires occur by which animals are forced to come to human settlements.
  • Over-exploitation of resources due to capitalist mentality is ending the transition zone between human settlement and natural wild, leading to a huge increase in human and animal conflicts.
  • According to the recent report on the world forest situation, the number of forest area is decreasing in the entire world, this decrease is highest in Africa continent.The constantly decreasing number of forests is a major cause of human and animal conflicts.
  • The skins, teeth, and bones of many animals are highly valued in the global black market, due to which these animals are hunted. This tendency to earn huge money is also a major cause of the human-animal struggle.
  • Climate change, drought, water scarcity, and biodiversity loss forced wildlife to come to human settlements in search of food.

The dilemma of development and conservation

  • With the success of industrialization, the capitalist mindset dominated the whole world. Based on this mindset, earning profit became the most important goal. Thus industrialization and an extreme capitalist mindset started exploiting forest resources. GDP, national income, energy security, etc. became the mark of a strong nation. The indiscriminate running of these resources affected the quality of forests and seas. With the quality of forests and resources being affected, the status of wildlife conflicts with humans also increased.
  • But in a short time, the Whole world understood about environmental concerns. The conditions of the ozone layer, rising sea level, melting of glaciers, forest, climate, and animal conservation in the global community were considered useful for humanity. This created a sense of protection.

How are conservation and development opposite to each other?

  • To accelerate the economy at present, basic infrastructure must be enhanced. These basic infrastructures include facilities such as roads, trains, energy.
  • Dual problem arise due to the construction of roads in forest areas. Firstly many animals become victims of this accident and secondly, the pollution caused by vehicles contaminates the forest area.
  • River development projects endanger the biodiversity of the entire region. Due to this, animals have to come to human settlement in search of food and water.
  • Due to increasing access to remote forest areas, people engaged in illegal activities also tend to exploit forest resources.
  • The development has thus become a problem for wildlife conservation. The problem is that both development and conservation are equally essential.

Human-animal conflict in India

India is still a developing country. It is necessary to have developmental works to bring social and economic equality in people of India. India also represents the world's biodiversity hotspots. Therefore, human and animal conflicts are seen many times in India.

Legal provision

  • Article 48a and Article 51A (g) of the Constitution of India talks about the conservation of wildlife.
  • The wildlife was included in the concurrent list by the 42nd Amendment (1976) Act.
  • The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 is important legislation for the protection of wildlife. It is a comprehensive central law, which provides for the protection of extinct wildlife and other endangered creatures. Human-animal conflicts can be prevented by conserving biodiversity.

Government efforts

  • Animal corridors are being constructed by the government to prevent human-animal conflict. Currently, India has more than 80 elephant corridors.
  • In the protected areas, the general public is restricted to go to some areas
  • Many times the traffic is stopped on seeing the movement of animals on the roads.
  • Human-animal conflict can also be prevented by community conservation work.
  • Awareness campaigns are conducted by the government on what precautions should be taken while going to the forest areas.
  • Several efforts are being made by the government for wildlife conservation. There are more than 101 National Parks, 553 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 86 Conservation Reserves, and 163 Community Reserves in the country as well.
  • Also, hunting of animals that are cannibalistic or have become dangerous is also allowed.
  • Human resources are also being increased in the forest department.
  • The government is trying to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity target along with global conventions related to biodiversity.

The conclusion

The solution to prevent human-animal conflict is that both are safe in their respective areas. Forest areas will have to be increased for this. According to the forest status report of India, both the forest area and tree area in India are increasing. This is a good sign. There is a need for the co-existence of both humans and animals to protect humanity.

General Studies Question Paper 3
  • Environment and Ecology

Mains Question:-

  • Recently there have been increase in human-animal conflicts . Discussing the reasons for these conflicts, explain the measures taken by the government to stop those.