The civil war in Ethiopia : Causes, Effects, and Prevention measures - Daily Current Affair Article

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After suffering from a border dispute with Eritrea from 1998 to 2018, a situation of civil war has now arisen in Ethiopia.


  • Civil war-like situation has arisen in the North-East African country, Ethiopia. A situation of conflict has arisen between the federal government of Ethiopia and the Tigray region authorities. More recently, this conflict in Ethiopia, after ending a two-decade-old border dispute with Eritrea, has once again caused a crisis in this African country.

About Ethiopia

  • It is a landlocked country located in the Horn of Africa, officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
  • It is the tenth-largest country in Africa in terms of area.
  • Its capital is Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia is located from Sudan in the southeast, Eritrea to the south, Djibouti and Somalia to the west, Kenya to the north, and South Sudan to the east.
  • It is the most populous landlocked country in the world.

Ethiopia conflict: at a glance

  • Currently Ethiopia has more than 70 ethnic groups. It has Oromo 34.5%, Amhara 26.91%, Somali 6.20%, Tigre 6.07% .Ethiopia adopting a single-party government system by ending the rule of Emperor Haley Silasi in 1974, but from 1987 to 1991 there was a power struggle that started again and federal rule arrangement accepted with a parliamentary form of government.
  • Eritrea, formerly part of Ethiopia, separated from Ethiopia in 1991. The war between 1998 and 2000 and the border in Eritrea and Ethiopia remained tense until 2018. Abi Ahmed was elected to the post of Prime Minister in 2018 and signed a peace deal to end the border dispute with Eritrea. After the implementation of this peace agreement, Abi Ahmad was awarded the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize.
  • But then the conflict started after Ahmed became Prime Minister. Abi Ahmed, who belongs to the Oroma community, was accused by local leaders of the Tigray community that the Tigray community under the leadership of Abi Ahmed was being harassed by military officials and bureaucrats.
  • The original inhabitants of Tigray are considered to be the fighting community of Ethiopia and 60 percent of senior military positions are dominated by the Tigray community. Abi Ahmed was committed to bringing this figure to 25%
  • Along with this, various international agencies have accused Abi Ahmad of imposing an internet shutdown to curtail press freedom in Ethiopia and curbing personal rights.
  • As a result of Abi Ahmad's policies, the dissatisfaction of the Tigray community increased and there was a situation of civil war. An election was held in opposition to the federal government in the Tigray region, but the Federal Government declared the election illegal. After this decision, a situation of conflict arose between the Tigray Authority and the Federal Government.
  • Missiles were fired by the Tigray army in the neighboring country of Eritrea, Asmara, after which the Federal Government of Ethiopia declared an armed struggle against the Tigray Army (Tigray People's Liberation Front).

Effects of this conflict

Impact on Ethiopian residents

  • Full democratic stability has not yet arrived in Ethiopia, the monarchy up to 1974, then the power struggle, then the war with Eritrea followed by the internal planetary war.
  • This problem impedes the creation of Ethiopia as a nation by stopping the social upliftment, economic reform, political development, and technological development of the citizens of Ethiopia.

Impact on other countries

  • Ethiopia is the region of the Horn of Africa which has countries like Eritrea, Djibouti, and Sudan in addition to Ethiopia. The launch of missiles at the capital of Eritrea by the Tigray community of Ethiopia also makes other countries suspicious.
  • Ethiopia's government has been asked by other countries in the region to end the conflict. Sudan is currently in crisis and Egypt will also be affected by this conflict because a significant portion of the river Nile's sources belongs to Ethiopia.
  • Thus Ethiopia's conflict will affect the entire region.

Impact on global organizations

  • Global organizations are also affected by this conflict. Recently the President of the World Health Organization has condemned the conflict in Ethiopia.

Impact on India

  • India considers Africa as an important part of its diplomacy at this time. Various types of welfare programs are being run by India in African countries. Educational work and industrial work is done by Indians in Ethiopia.
  • In the conflict, the Indians in Ethiopia will face some crisis. The Government of India is committed to protecting the population living abroad, in this situation India's concerns will increase.

Refugee crisis

  • Refugee crisis also arises from war. Currently, many countries of the world, including Sudan, are facing a refugee crisis. In India too, there have been many conflicts over refugees coming from Bangladesh. This conflict will increase the refugee crisis somewhere.

Encouraging global unrest

  • At this time where conflicts are prevailing all over the world. Myanmar's Rohingya problem, Sri Lanka’s Tamil problem, racist problems in America is increasing.
  • This conflict in Ethiopia may give these ethnic movements an option to choose a violent path. With this, the whole world is suffering from global problems like terrorism and political problems like Armenia Azerbaijan, US-Iran, South China Sea dispute; it can cause unrest in the whole world.

Conflict prevention measures

Any form of war impedes the development of humanity, in such a situation, it is the responsibility of sovereign nations and global organizations to stop these conflicts.

  • In this situation, it is firstly necessary that the Prime Minister of Ethiopia should reduce the trust deficit generated among other communities and try to remove the misconceptions that arise in their mindset. The role of media and social reformers will be important in removing those misconceptions, in which case the ban on the internet should be abolished and freedom of the press should be restored.
  • Ethiopia has a federal government, so the constitution there must have determined the relationship between the center and the states. In this situation, the Federal Government and the Tigray Authority of Ethiopia must try to find a constitutional solution to these problems.
  • Other Ethiopian communities will have to play their part in reducing this stalemate and tension.
  • As a long-term action plan, the global community along with the United Nations should promote economic development in Ethiopia so that the problems of poverty and hunger there are reduced and these problems reduce the rebellion.

The conclusion

Although this is the problem of Ethiopia, it reflects the various problems of this world. Therefore, all the sovereign powers of the world, global organizations, influential authorities, and grassroots influential people have to understand the need for peace and take steps to move on the path of human development. In this view, it is necessary to assimilate the principles of secularism, humanism, multiculturalism, and democracy.

General Studies Paper 2
  • International Relations

Mains Question:-

  • Ethiopia is currently battling a civil war. Is the ethnic conflict responsible for this civil war? Discuss the efforts that can be made to stop these conflicts?