Science and Technology in Ancient India - Daily Current Affair Article


At present, relatively better development is being done in the technology of India, but ancient India was also advanced from the point of view of science.


  • Indian science has come a long way from the sculpture of the bronze dancer and the advanced urbanization found in the Indus Valley Civilization to the exploration of the surface of the moon. Today, India is famous all over the world due to ISRO, DRDO, IT sectors, but ancient India was also advanced from the point of view of science and technology. India has achieved significant achievements in the fields of Mathematics, Physics, and Medicine in ancient India.

Achievements in the science of ancient India

Field of mathematics

  • Indus Valley Civilization was a business-oriented civilization. Therefore, weighing systems were developed there. According to archaeologists, in the Indus Valley Civilization, a system of scale ratio of 16 was developed.
  • The Yajurveda describes numbers up to 10 Kharab.
  • The most prevalent number of the decimal system (0 to 9) in the present world was invented in India.
  • The description of the innumerable (Infinity) is firstly found In the Jain text "Anuyogdwar".
  • Geometry is described in Vedang literature.
  • The knowledge of the description of trigonometry in Varahamihira’s 'Surya Siddhanta' (sixth century),
  • Brahmagupta also provided sufficient information on trigonometry and he also constructed a sine table.
  • Famous mathematicians like Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, Bhaskaracharya, Sridharacharya, etc. also had great proficiency in algebra. The greatest achievement in the field of algebra was Brahmagupta's solution of the square equation.


  • Indian astronomy is thought to have originated from the Vedas. The use of astrology in Vedang literature was based on the principles of astronomy.
  • Indian scientist Aryabhatta told the circular shape of the Earth and the principle of circling on its axis. After that, the famous German astronomer Copernicus give this theory.
  • Brahmagupta confirmed the Earth's gravitational theory even before Sir Isaac Newton.


  • People of Harappan culture are familiar with geometry. The brick formation, construction of buildings, cutting off roads at right angles are proof that people of that period knew geometry.
  • In the Vedic period the Aryans used the knowledge of geometry to make the altars of the yajna which is also mentioned in Vedang.
  • Aryabhatta has established the value of the ratio "pie" to the circumference and diameter of the circle 3.1416.

Medical Science

  • First written knowledge about the Indian system of medicine is found in 'Atharvaveda'. The treatment of various diseases is given in Atharvaveda's 'Bhaisjya Sutra'. A detailed description is found on the topics of general medicine and mental medicine.
  • 'Sushruta Samhita', 'Charaksamhita' are authentic and world-renowned texts of the medical science of ancient India. 'Sushruta Samhita' describes 8 types of surgery.
  • Along with the treatment of humans, the science of veterinary medicine was also developed in India since ancient times.There are many efforts related to the treatment of elephants and oxen. The texts of a Veterinarian named 'Shalihotra' are available in Ayurveda, 'Ashva Symptoms' and 'Ashwa Praja'. These include the description of diseases of horses and medicines for their treatment.


  • India has proficiency in metallurgy since ancient times. India's proficiency in metallurgy was of the highest order. Porus, 326 AD, Indian steel weighing 30 pounds was presented to Alexander. The standing iron pillar (4th century) in the Mehrauli of Delhi has remained rustless for 1700 years despite the effects of heat and rain. This is a sample of the ferocious ironwork of India.
  • Besides, the Konark temple of Orissa, built in the thirteenth-century iron pillar of about 90 tons weight, is still free from corrosion.
  • The sage Kanad ( sixth century BC.) proved that every substance of the world is made up of atoms. Kanad's atomic theory is the first atomic theory in the world.

Engineering and Architecture

  • From the Indus Valley Civilization, India was a pioneer in the field of architecture. The urban system of the Indus is an inspiration for the present cities.
  • Buildings, pillars, cave construction, chaitya construction during the Mahajanapada period and Maurya period are examples of advanced architecture of India.
  • Ancient India has advanced series of temples. The Kailashnath temple built on the hillside is a great specimen of engineering.


  • In ancient times, there have been great scientists like Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Nagarjuna, Charak, Sushruta, Boudhayan.

The conclusion

  • Undoubtedly, ancient India was technologically advanced in the fields of mathematics, medicine, physics, in the presence of scientists like Varahamihir, Aryabhatta, Nagarjuna. Contemporary civilizations of the Indus valley were not as scientific as the Indus.
  • With this, in ancient India, almost India was technically and economically self-sufficient and was the leader of the entire world as a Vishwaguru.
General Studies Paper 1
  • Indian Art and Culture
  • Indian culture will include the main aspects of art form, literature, and architecture from ancient times to modern times.

Mains Question:-

  • The scientific achievements of ancient India establish him as the technological leader of the contemporary ancient world. Discuss the statement?