Libyan crisis moving towards an end - Daily Current Affair Article

Reference :-

  • Recently a historic ceasefire has been announced in Libya between NATO-based forces and Libyan rebel groups.

Introduction :-

  • The Libyan crisis that arose after the dictatorial rule is expected to end. With the intervention of the UN, the ceasefire is established and a peace agreement between the NATO-based army and militia group is seen there. If this agreement is successful, it will undoubtedly play an important role in the development of Libya.

Libyan crisis at a glance

  • Libya, which was under colonial rule until 1951, was taken over by military officer Muammar Gaddafi in 1969. Muammar Gaddafi ruled there for nearly 42 years.
  • In 2011, a mass movement against the Gaddafi regime arose and a situation of civil war erupted in Libya, causing Western countries to hand over Libya through NATO forces and Gaddafi had to withdraw from power. Gaddafi was also killed by the rebel group. Situation not being controlled after Gaddafi's death, the United Nations intervened there, and in 2012 an internationally recognized government was formed in Tripoli through elections.
  • There was to be re-election in 2014 but the government extended its tenure by postponing the election. Subsequently, Khalifa Haftar formed a Libyan National Army (LNA) and formed a parallel government.
  • After this arrangement, the situation in Libya became extremely critical. On the one hand, there is a rule in the eastern part of Libya with the help of Tobruk based parliament, while the international government of the United Nations governs the western part of Libya from Tripoli.
  • International aided government has failed to provide stability in Libya and there is increase in kidnapping, crime, lack of facilities like petrol, etc. There is a state of anarchy.
  • Although the conflict stopped in June 2020, Khalifa Haftar did not accept the full ceasefire. The ceasefire was announced on 24 October 2020 on the occasion of United Nations Day.
  • Both sides involved in the Libyan civil war have international support. While Turkey, Italy Qatar, NATO members support the Tripoli-based government, and Russia, Egypt, United Arab Emirates recognize the Khalifa Haftar.

About Libya

  • It is a country located in North Africa. It borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the northeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
  • It is an oil-rich country which is mostly covered from desert.
  • The capital and largest city of Libya is Tripoli.
  • Islam is the highest followed religion here.

Key points of the ceasefire

Negotiations took place between 5 +5 (5 pertaining to NATO, 5 pertaining to LNA) in the arbitration of the United Nations. Rules of the ceasefire are also made by the UN.

The rules are

  • All foreign troops will be withdrawn from Libya in 90 days under the ceasefire.
  • If a ceasefire is violated, a joint military operation will be carried out in unified command.
  • A joint police room will be established which will control the places vacated by the troops.
  • Joint military team of 5 + 5 has approved land and air transportation which connects the western and eastern parts of Libya.

UNO in Libya

  • After the death of Gaddafi, the United Nations intervened in the situation.
  • The United Nations attempts to resolve issues like oil revenue distribution, armed groups, government formation between the two powers.
  • The United Nations Mission has asked to re-launch a political dialogue forum in Libya.
  • The United Nations assisted as many as 50,000 refugees here.
  • The United Nations also played an important role in the recent ceasefire agreement.

Conclusion

  • In the absence of foreign powers to solve the problem, Western and Eastern governments have to put their sides only in the arbitration of the United Nations. Peacekeeping is extremely important in Libya. This will bring stability to the global oil market. At the same time, it is also necessary to protect the human rights of Libyan citizens.

General Studies Paper 2

  • International Relations

Mains Question:-

  • What do you understand by the Libyan crisis? Discuss the United Nations' efforts to resolve the Libyan crisis?