Industry 4.0 and world order - Daily Current Affair Article for UPSC, IAS, Civil Services and State PCS Examinations

Context

  • The world is entering the fourth phase of the Industrial Revolution with great intensity. This change will prove to be a factor in the transformation of the current global system.

Introduction :-

  • Industry 4.0 is the digital transformation of manufacturing/production and related industries and value creation processes. Industry 4.0 is used in conjunction with the Fourth Industrial Revolution and this industrial represents a new phase that controls the industrial value chain. Cyber-physical systems form the ground of Industry 4.0 (eg, smart machines). It uses modern control systems. Software systems are embedded and connected via IoT (Internet of Things). The Internet provides a network of products and means of production by which they can 'communicate', leading to new modes of production, value creation and real-time optimization. Cyber-physical systems create the necessary capabilities for smart factories. These are the capabilities we know of as the Industrial Internet of Things such as remote monitoring or track and trace.
  • Thus Industry 4.0 refers to machine learning and artificial intelligence.

Pillars of the Fourth Industrial Revolution: -

  • It is primarily based on digitization or automation of factories through the use of the Internet of Things (IoT). Also, it is combined with cyber-physical systems. These systems will be autonomous-type systems with decision-making capabilities on their own, and have to implement machine learning and will also collect data in real-time, which will be analyzed and saved in the cloud.

Industry 4.0 will depend on the following pillars

  • Internet Of Things (Iot),
  • Big Data And Data Analytics,
  • Augmented Reality (A Virtual Representation Of The Real World),
  • Cyberspace,
  • Collaborative Robot,
  • Additive Manufacturing,
  • Cloud Computing,
  • Artificial Intelligence,
  • 5g Network.

How can the Industrial Revolution 4.0 affect the power of states and world order?

  • Although the power concept of states is a very complex and difficult one to define, a formula has been established by being influenced by a high number of factors P = (C + E + M) x (S + W)
  • P - State power;
  • C - is the critical mass related to population, and resources
  • E - Economic Efficiency
  • M - military capability
  • S - State's strategic objective
  • W-Will / determination to pursue national strategies That is, the power of a state shows that with which strategy and will power uses its tangible resources i.e. population, military capacity and economic capacity. Looking at the above formula, it is clear that the Industrial Revolution 4.0 will affect both tangible and intangible elements. Based on extensive research of relevant sources, it can also be said that the 4th Industrial Revolution is already affecting these factors; their impact will increase in the future.

Situation of different countries of the world based on the formula of state power and industry 4.0 : -

  • The world has changed at this time. Just like the first industrial revolution that took place in England (factories and machines started production) or the second industrial revolution that proceeded under the American leadership (the use of new energy) or the third industrial revolution (the emergence of computers). The number was small. But this situation has changed due to increasing competition, increasing technology, increasing consumerism.
  • The monopoly of America, Britain has come to an end with the world, and countries like India, China, South Korea have come forward.
  • The world is currently undergoing transition. This world is neither bipolar like the 1945-1991 era nor a world controlled by America. Now many power centers have been established in the world like America, Russia, China, India, European Union. The flood of protectionism following the recession of 2008 has led to many changes. Inspired by conservation litigation, while the United States is withdrawing its resources from other countries, institutions, the percentage of donations to organizations like IMF, World Health Organization is increasing.
  • Regarding technicians, where countries like China, South Korea are leading, old powers like France, Britain are now lagging. India has now overtaken Britain in terms of economy and has also emerged as a great power of space.
  • In this situation, the demand for reform of the United Nations Security Council is continuously increasing. This is about changing the world order.
  • Many experts believe that China will be the center of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. In such a situation, the Fourth Industrial Revolution has the potential to change the world order.

India and the Industrial Revolution 4.0

  • Rapid technological change is taking place in the entire manufacturing ecosystem. There is a need to understand and accept advanced manufacturing techniques. If India fails to do so then India's demographic dividend will turn into a demographic curse. At present, Industry 4.0 is talked about at various levels.
  • The Government of India has attracted considerable attention from the industry in the manufacturing sector through the "Make in India" initiative. India is formulating a National Policy for Advanced Manufacturing, which achieves its objective of increasing the contribution of manufacturing production. Will be one of the important tools.
  • The roadmap for the introduction of 'Industry 4.0' is being considered. This will have tremendous impetus for modern materials including advanced materials, advanced robotics, and 3D printing.
  • Industry 4.0 has many aspects to it including the upcoming trends of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technology, cyber-physical systems, the Internet of Things, cloud computing, and more. The new motto and existing Internet of Things (IoT) technology, for the combination of the industry, is being worked on in the country.
  • India's transformative journey of manufacturing through Industry 4.0, banking on India's strength in information technology, and a large workforce of IT professionals have already started in the country. Under the Smart Cities Mission of the Government of India, projects to build 100 smart cities across India are being seen as precursors to the Industry 4.0 environment.
  • Additionally, the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) is building India's first smart factory in Bangalore with funding from the Boeing company
  • German auto parts manufacturer will begin the implementation of smart manufacturing at its 15 centers in India by 2018.
  • At the Partnership Summit 2017 in Visakhapatnam, the Secretary of the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), has given special attention to Industrial Revolution 4.0

Conclusions: -

  • Undoubtedly, Industrial Revolution 4.0 will play an extremely important role in changing the current world order. In such a situation, India also needs to strive to become a world leader. Significantly, the ethical aspect of Industrial Revolution 4.0 is still in doubt. The global community will have to devise strategies for the industrial revolution in such a way that human welfare can be achieved.

General Studies Paper 2 and 3

  • International Relations and Science and Technology

Mains Question:-

  • How will the fourth phase of the Industrial Revolution play a role in changing the world order? Discuss?