Indus Valley Civilization - Daily Current Affair Article


Recently seven Indus Valley sites in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh were excavated. The ingredients of animal products, including cattle and buffalo meat, have been found here.


The beginning of Indian history is believed to be from the Indus Valley Civilization. This civilization was spread around 2500 BC in the regions of India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.

Recently seven Indus Valley sites in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh of India were excavated where a large number of bones and components of animal products including cattle and buffalo meat have been found in utensils. Thus the evidence of the Indus Valley civilization being carnivorous has been confirmed.

Expansion of Indus civilization

East Western Extension: -

This civilization extended from Sutkangdor in the west to Alamgirpur (Uttar Pradesh) in the east.

Northern southern extension

This civilization extended from Manda on the banks of the Chenab River to Bhagatrao in the south. Although, some historians consider Daimabad as the southernmost site.

Era of IVC

It is from 3300 BC to 1700 BC, mature period: 2550 BC to 1750 BC. But according to research published in Britain-based Nature magazine, this civilization is at least 8000 years old.

Discovery of Indus valley civilization

This civilization was discovered in 1921 under the leadership of John Marshall by Dayaram Sahni and MadhavSwaroop Vats.

Some important sites of the Indus Valley Civilization and their archaeological findings:

  • Out of about 1100 sites of Indus Valley Civilization, 924 centers are in India. Some of IVC's important sites are as follows:
  • Harappa (on the banks of river Ravi) - It is located in Pakistan. Here two rows of six granaries with huge platforms, a statue of mother goddess, wheat and barley, dice, and mirrors are found. Apart from this, a statue of a dog chasing a deer made of bronze metal and a male torso made of red sandstone has also been found.
  • Mohenjodaro (on the banks of the Indus River): - It is also located in Pakistan. A great bath, cemetery, bearded priest, famous dancer and Pashupati seal are found here.
  • Stewart Piggot called Harappa and Mohenjodaro as two capitals of a vast empire.
  • Dhaulavira - It is located in Gujarat, India. Here huge water reservoirs, a unique inscription system, stadium, dam have been found. This is the most recently discovered IVC city. Recently, the Government of India has sent a proposal to include it in the UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Lothal - This city located in Gujarat is known as Manchester of Indus civilization. It was an important site of maritime trade. Here, Dockyard (the place of shipbuilding), paddy husk, fire altars, painted pottery, the terracotta shape of horse and ship, angle measuring instruments, etc. are found.
  • Rakhigarhi - It is located in Haryana. Here Fire altars and apsidal structures, drainage systems, have been found. It is called the provincial capital of the Harappan civilization.
  • Road - It is located on the banks of the Sutlej River in Punjab. Evidence of a dog buried with a human corpse and a copper ax in an oval pit has been found here. It is the first Harappan site which discovered post-independence.
  • Balathal and Kalibanga - It is located in Rajasthan, India. Bangle factories, toys, camel bones, ornate bricks, and fire altars have been found here.
  • Surkotada - The first real remains of horse bones have been found in this city located in Gujarat.
  • Banwali in Haryana - It was situated on the banks of the Saraswati River. Toy plough, barley, fire altars,etc. It is the only Harappan city with aerial roads.
  • Alamgirpur - It is located on the banks of Yamuna, this city is the Meerut region of modern Uttar Pradesh. It is the easternmost site of the Indus Valley Civilization. Here broken pieces of copper, objects made of clay have been found.
  • Chanhudaro - It is the only IVC site where the fort is not found. It is currently located in Pakistan. The use of lipstick is found here.
  • Kotdiji- It is located in Pakistan. Statues of tar, bull, and mother goddess have been found from here.
  • Other major places of IVC include Desalpur (Gujarat), Pabumath (Gujarat), Rangpur (Gujarat) Shikarpur (Gujarat), Sanoli (Uttar Pradesh), Kunal (Haryana), Karanpura (Rajasthan), Ganeriwala (Punjab), etc.

Inputs of Indus Valley Civilization to present civilization

  • The system of city planning and drainage of the Indus civilization was very advanced. The roads were on a rectangular grid pattern. The roads used to cut each other at 90 degrees. Similar town planning is found in today's urbanization. Although the Indus civilization had better drainage than today's cities.
  • In religious matters, worship of Pashupati, Linga worship, worship of Mother Goddess, belief in purity of water was found in Indus civilization which is still a part of Indian culture.
  • This civilization is the ancestor of today's civilization in the case of sculpture and architecture. The great bath, the granaries, and the bronze dancer are its important structures. Well-fired brick structures were used here.
  • This civilization was more advanced than the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, and its elements are still present in Indian culture.
General Studies Paper 1
  • Indian History

Mains Question:-

  • Recently seven Indus Valley sites in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh were excavated. The people of the Indus Valley Civilization in northwest India had a predominantly meat-heavy diet, comprising animals like pigs, cattle, buffalo and sheep, along with dairy products, a study published in Journal of Archaeological Science has shown.
  • A high proportion of cattle bones were also found, which may suggest a “cultural preference for beef consumption” across Indus populations. Describing important sites of Indus Valley Civilization, discuss the inputs of Indus Valley Civilization to modern civilization?