Indian response to the rise of pan Turkism - Daily Current Affair Article

Why in news?

The influence of Turkey is expanding in European region.

Internationalism

Internationalism implies a feeling of brotherhood nourished by all people of the world. It is a system of feeling, thought and action designed to promote peaceful co-operation and co-existence. All of us are parts of a single unified society and our needs are inter-dependent.

Distances mean nothing in these days of high-speed. The need for inter-dependence is now more urgent than ever before. No longer is it for a nation to isolate itself from the rest of the world.

Indian tryst with Internationalism

  • India has a middle power status and a rising power mindset.
  • The emerging multi polar world manifests opportunities as well as challenges to India’s foreign policy.
  • The newness quotient is Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s ‘economy first’ approach rooted in his desire to create external conditions necessary to ensure domestic economic progress.
  • He has displayed dynamism while engaging all major powers, promoting and reintegrating India with the global economy, promoting greater cooperation with South Asian neighbors and renewing strategic connections in the Indian Ocean, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa.
  • Pragmatism in India’s foreign policy is seen in Indo–US relations reaching a new level or in cooperation with China on climate change while opposing its territorial claims in the South China Sea and One Belt One Road Project.
  • To counter China, India has sought close strategic partnerships with the USA and its allies and main partners in Asia-Pacific while retaining its strategic autonomy.
  • A major challenge to India’s foreign policy is the downward spiral of relations with Pakistan
  • By all reckoning, India has arrived on the world stage. In the last three decades, India’s large and rapidly expanding economy coupled with its huge population and its nuclear powers captured international attention and enhanced the image of India with a profound change

Benefits of Internationalism

  • Internationalism should be pursued in order for the world and its people to have to have lasting safety and security.
  • With the world that people now live in internationalism should be the main focus to try and help combat against terror and violence. To try and make the world safe for everyone no matter the culture, ethnicity or financial state.
  • The World Trade Organization (WTO) sets agreed upon terms for international trade that aim to ensure that all trade is reasonably fair and minimizes any manipulation between trade partners with any power inequities. It has also been successful in playing a significant role in the widespread reduction of trade protectionism - a concern that has existed since at least the time of mercantilism
  • We also have a number of globally systemic issues that currently exist and will potentially exist that cannot be resolved through the decisions of a single-state actor. Some of these include and may include: climate change, artificial general intelligence, nuclear disarmament, modifying the human genome, automation, cyber terrorism, global tax avoidance, and catastrophe risk.
  • The most prominent examples of internationalism today include Intergovernmental Organizations’ (IGO’s) such as the EU, African Union, World Bank, UN, NATO, ASEAN, IPCC, WTO, Mercosur, OECD, and the League of Arab States.

Internationalist card by Turkey

  • Turkey has stunned much of the world with its military power projection into the region.
  • In the war between Armenia and Azerbaijan earlier this year, Turkish military intervention decisively tilted the war in favor of the Azerbaijan.
  • Many in the region are beginning to purchase Turkish drones that played a key role in Azerbaijan’s victory. Last year, Kazakhstan signed an agreement for wide-ranging defense and security cooperation with Turkey.
  • The Kazakhstan, a member of the Russia-led regional security bloc, is moving towards strategic cooperation with Turkey, a member of US-led NATO, points to the thickening pan-Turkic bonds in a rapidly changing regional order.
  • For the Central Asian states, living under the shadow of Chinese economic power and Russian military power, Turkey offers a chance for economic diversification and greater strategic autonomy.
  • Turkey was the first Muslim-majority nation that established full diplomatic relations with Israel.

Council of Turkic States

  • President Turgut Ozal convened the first Turkish summit with some central Asian states in 1992.
  • The arrival of Erdogan as the leader of Turkey in 2002 speeded up the process. He converted the annual summit with the inner Asian states into a Council of Turkic States in 2009.
  • Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan joined Turkey as founding members.
  • In Ankara, it was hailed as the “first voluntary alliance of the Turkic states in history”. Uzbekistan joined the council last and raised its profile at the Istanbul summit last week
  • At a summit of the Council’s leaders last week in Istanbul, it was announced that the forum has been elevated to an “Organisation of Turkic States”.
  • Hungary, which has a long history of association with Turkic people, and Turkmenistan have observer status.
  • At least a dozen other countries have apparently shown interest in getting observer status.
  • The OTS also adopted a vision document called “Turkish World 2040” that will guide the organization’s efforts to develop intensive cooperation among its members and contribute vigorously to regional and international security.

Pan Turkey ideology

The ideology of pan-Turkism is not new. Its origins date back to the mid-19th century when campaigns for uniting Turkic people in Russia gained traction. Its geographic scope would eventually become much wider, covering the huge spread of Turkic people from the “Balkans to the Great Wall of China”. A defining slogan of pan-Turkism is this: “Where there are Turks, there is Turkey.”

Turkey progress in last three decade

Over the last three decades, a number of soft power initiatives in education, culture, and religion have raised Turkey’s profile in Central Asia and generated new bonds with the region’s elites. But it is in the domains of hard power in commercial and military that Turkey’s progress has been impressive.

  • Nearly 5,000 Turkish companies work in Central Asia.
  • Turkish annual trade with the region is around $10 billion. This could change as Turkey strengthens connectivity with Central Asia through the Caucasus.
  • Turkey has also made impressive progress in building transportation corridors to Central Asia and beyond, to China, Georgia and Azerbaijan. The so-called Lapis Lazuli Corridor now connects Turkey to Afghanistan via Turkmenistan.

Difference between India and Turkey

  • India was non-aligned and Turkey, a member of the Western Cold War alliances like NATO.
  • Turkey tilted to Pakistan on the Kashmir issue, and India moved closer to Nicosia in Turkey’s dispute with Cyprus
  • Turkey’s growing role in Afghanistan opens a more difficult phase in relations between Delhi and Ankara. India’s opposition to alliances and Turkey’s alignments reflected divergent international orientations between both the countries.
  • Turkey’s Islamist internationalism under Recep Tayyip Erdogan has inevitably led to its deeper alliance with Pakistan, greater meddling in South Asia, and a sharper contraction with India.

Dealing with Turkey

  • Sustained dialogue between the two governments and the strategic communities of the two countries
  • Dealing with Turkey must be an important part of India’s foreign and security policy.
  • Erdogan’s ambitions have offended many countries in Eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East and the Caucasus.
  • Many of them are eager to expand strategic cooperation with India in limiting Turkish hegemony. This opens a range of new opportunities for Indian foreign and security policy in Eurasia.

India should learn from Turkey geopolitics

  • Turkey is a NATO member has not stopped Erdogan from a strategic liaison with Russian President Vladimir Putin. That he purchases advanced weapons like S-400 missiles from Moscow.
  • Ankara’s criticism of China’s repression of Turkic Uighurs in Xinjiang — that was once called “Eastern Turkestan” — goes hand-in-hand with deep economic collaboration with Beijing

Opportunities for India

  • Located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe, it is geopolitically an important player in a volatile region, and economically, as a hub for third country exports, particularly as a stepping stone into the EU market.
  • Potential for multifaceted cooperation across a wide spectrum, ranging from trade and investment to defense and high technology.
  • Turkey joining an Indian initiative, the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure, exemplifies our collaboration for a common cause.
  • The two countries are “victims of terrorism, including cross-border terrorism, both have to join hand to end terrorism.

Conclusion

The friendship treaty with Turkey that Jawaharlal Nehru signed in 1951 underlined India’s hopes for building a lasting partnership in the post-colonial era. Prime ministers, Rajiv Gandhi and Atal Bihari Vajpayee, tried to end the stalemate in relations with Turkey, but did not succeed.

Erdogan’s enduring enthusiasm for Pakistan does not preclude Turkey from doing business, economic and strategic ties with India. Turkey is an important regional player that must be factored into India’s current recalibration of its Middle East policy.

Source- Indian express

General Studies Paper 2
  • International Relation