India is facing dual- front border challenge - Daily Current Affair Article

The reference

India is facing challenges due to two arch rivals, China and Pakistan.


  • At present, India is facing a double crisis on the border. On the one hand, India is facing a proxy war waged by arch-rivals Pakistan; on the other hand, China remains a matter of concern, driven by the imperialist motives to establish its dominance in Asia.
  • India has faced wars with Pakistan in the past and has conquered every time, but there are also bitter memories of the 1962 war with China where India suffered defeat in the war.
  • But in the changing global scenario today, India should be prepared for the tension induced by China and Pakistan.

Brief description of tensions between India and Pakistan

  • India and Pakistan together emerged as new and independent countries on the world map. With the independence of these two, tension also emerged. First, the issue of Jammu and Kashmir in 1948, the issue of Bangladesh later, the Kargil tension, the problem of terrorism, and the Indus water dispute, many such tensions exist between these two countries.
  • India and Pakistan have often come across each other directly in the war, among them the war of 1948, 1965 war, 1971 war and the battle of Kargil are prominent. But since then the circumstances have changed today, today both these countries are nuclear weapons rich countries.
  • At various times at the international level, efforts were made by various countries, SCO, SAARC, UN agencies to restore peace talks between these two countries.
  • India has also taken several initiatives to restore peace efforts but the increasing influence of the army in the internal politics of Pakistan, the problem of terrorism, lack of democracy, etc. have created many obstacles in making these peace negotiations successful.
  • Thus the tension between India and Pakistan could not be eradicated and it is still visible in the form of petty disputes. An example of this has been shown recently when India changed the constitutional position of Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan articulated against India on various international forums.

India and China Dispute

  • India and China are the oldest civilization in this world. Both these countries became independent almost simultaneously. After independence till 1962, the relationship between the two was better. But in 1962 China attacked India under the imperialist policy of China and India had to face defeat.
  • The Tibetan Dalai Lama's obtaining refugee status, China views the South China Sea expansion policy, South East Asian countries consider India as Net Security Provider in the region, China asserting its authority over Arunachal Pradesh and parts of Uttarakhand, etc. are the reasons of conflict between India and China.
  • It is traditionally understood that the Chinese army will be more powerful than India but in the recent border tensions and the Doklam dispute in 2017, the Indian Army did not allow China to expand, demonstrating its vitality.
  • The situation has changed from 1962 till today, both India and China are nuclear weapon rich countries, and China today wants to establish itself as a global superpower, not a regional one. In such a situation, China's imperialist ideology may clash with India's democratic ideology and the principle of peaceful co-existence.

"Both China and Pakistan are shared to the western, northern, and north-eastern borders of India. In such a situation, India is facing challenges on border security by the combination of China and Pakistan".

Problems to India

  • It is traditionally believed that Pakistan's army is no more powerful than Indian army. But today Pakistan is also endowed with nuclear armament and its combined power with China can bring worries to India.
  • The proximity between these two countries (Pakistan and China) has been increasing for some time recently. After Russia proposed India's membership on the SCO platform, China proposed Pakistan as a member.
  • The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor that passes through the POK in China's BRI plan is considered a major threat to India's integrity.
  • Under the neo-colonialist policy by China, its dominance is being increased in India's neighboring countries like Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar by economic development, as well as by establishing its access to countries like the Maldives and Sri Lanka, etc. by ensuring its access to the Indian Ocean. Both the Indian Ocean and India's neighbors have great strategic importance to India. China's access here is not strategically appropriate for India.
  • In 2017, construction work was started by China at a place called Doklam which falls in the region of Bhutan. Doklam is very close to the Siliguri Corridor or Chicken Neck of India, from here the North Eastern region of India connects to other areas of India. China's access to Doklam was not strategically correct for India and India has entered into a treaty to cooperate with Bhutan's military affairs.
  • In this situation, tensions arose between India and China. It is important to note here that Bhutan was the only country that decided not to enter into a BRI conference with India.
  • Pakistan has shown itself as an Islamic country and continues to make alliances against India in the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. Recently, when the constitutional position of Jammu and Kashmir was changed by India, the issue was raised by Pakistan in the Organization of Islamic Cooperation in respect of which the resolution against India was passed by the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. Thus, it is also not appropriate from India's diplomatic point of view.

Steps were taken by India against these challenges

  • In India, principles like democracy, peaceful co-existence, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam are adopted. Democracy is unimportant both in Pakistan and China, so the steps of China and Pakistan do not fulfill the aspirations of the people there and only fulfill the wishes of politicians. Along with this, other democratic countries and developed countries of the world have a cooperative attitude towards India.
  • India's army is committed, and capable of protecting its nation. The Indian Army has defeated Pakistan in a direct war and in tensions with the recently concluded China, the Army has shown unprecedented courage. India's army is one of the strongest armies in the world and is capable of war under any circumstances.
  • India's space agency ISRO is one of the world's chosen space agency. The satellites created by ISRO provide information on the activities of the border which gives India a strategic edge. Successful use of anti-satellite missile power was carried out by ISRO itself which increased the power of India.
  • India is a nuclear weapon state but India's policies and principles give it the status of a reliable country. India has accepted and followed the policy of No First Use in the context of nuclear weapons. India's culture and policy of harmony with various religions provide a prestigious place in this entire world which enhances India's soft power diplomacy.
  • At present, India has better relations with countries like the USA, Russia, France. The Quad, created by India, America, Japan, and Australia, is one of the most powerful organizations in the world today. India is an important SAARC country and leads BIMSTEC. Non-alignment is led by India, and India is a representative of developing countries in the global organizations. India has friendly relations with many countries. Recently, India has been elected as a temporary member of the UN Security Council. This is an indicator of India's growing global stature.
  • India does not compromise on sovereignty and integrity. In this approach, a part of the budget is given to increase border management and arsenal.

The conclusion

  • Therefore, we can say that although India's major challenge is dual, India is able to diagnose these challenges easily through its military power, its principle, its soft power diplomacy. With this, the entire world has already realized that any kind of war can be responsible for the destruction of humanity in the era of nuclear scriptures, an example of which we have seen in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Thus all countries use dialogue narrative informal channels to calm their tensions and India is also in favor of peace negotiations and international cooperation.
General Studies Question Paper 2
  • International Relations

Mains Question:-

  • India's tensions increasing with the two countries Pakistan and China which share the border with India. How will these tensions affect India?