Human Development Index 2020 - Daily Current Affair Article

References: -

Recently, in the Human Development Index report released by the United Nations Development Program, India has fallen two places from the previous year's performance from 129 to 131 in the list of 189 countries.

Concept of human development: -

Human development refers to the expansion of all economic socio-cultural and political fields that are necessary for human development. Knowledge, better living standards, equality and social justice, human security and human rights, environmental stability, participation in social and political life, health and longevity, etc. are all included in the indicator of human development, thus human development is an important cause of economic prosperity.

Human Development Index 2020

  • The Human Development Index has been released by the United Nations Development Program since 1990. It is a measurement of the progress made in the context of human development of any country in different dimensions. For the first time in this new index:
  • The United Nations Development Program has introduced a new dimension to reflect the impact of per capita carbon emissions in each country.
  • The new dimension added to the Human Development Index gives importance to environmental elements. It measures the amount of fossil fuels, metals, material footprints, and other resources used throughout the year for the production and consumption of goods and services.

Important points related to the index

  • Norway ranked first in this index, followed by Ireland, Switzerland, Hong Kong, and Iceland respectively.
  • Talking about the neighboring countries of India, Bhutan was ranked 129, which is better than India, followed by Bangladesh ranked 133, Nepal ranked 142 and Pakistan ranked 154.
  • China's net emissions stood at 8 gigatons, 34% less than China's terrestrial emissions.
  • The difference between net emissions and terrestrial emissions in the sub-Saharan region has been 15%.
  • The report also said that no country could achieve high levels of development without over-filling on natural resources.

India and Human Development Index

  • Purchasing power parity (PPP) has decreased according to the report published by the UN Development Program.
  • There has seen a decline in India's per capita income in 2019 as compared to 2018, it was $ 6829 which has fallen to $ 6681 in 2019.
  • Due to less attention given to the health and education of girls in India, they have more malnutrition than boys.
  • India, Cambodia, and Thailand have seen the extreme problem of malnutrition.
  • The UNDP spokesperson has praised India's efforts to reduce carbon emissions and has also stated that the decline in India's ranking does not mean that India has not done well but it means that other countries have performed better than India.
  • The difference between India's net emissions and terrestrial emissions has been 19%.
  • India's score is 0.645 in HDI 2020. This was also 0.645 in 2019.

India's performance in various fields

  • Health (Life expectancy ) - 69.7 years
  • Education (years of average schooling) - 12.2 years
  • Income / structure of resources (per capita income) - 6681
  • Inequality (Inequality-adjusted HDI) -0.475
  • Gender (Gender Development Index (GDI)) - 0.820
  • Poverty (% of Population in multi-dimensional poverty)- 27.9%
  • Employment - (percentage of the population and working population) - 46.7%
  • Human security (murder rate per 100,000 people) - 3.1
  • Trade and financial flows (exports and imports as a percentage of GDP) 40.0%
  • Mobility and communication (Internet users in total population percentage) - 34.5%
  • Environmental sustainability - (Carbon dioxide, per capita production emission rate) (ton) - 2.0 ton
  • Demographics (total population (estimated 2030) - 1,503.6 lakhs
  • Socio-economic stability (skilled labor force in percentage of labor force) - 21.2%

Conclusion

UNDP has appreciated the efforts made in India's environmental sector. But India needs more work in skill development, social equality, communication and mobility. India's efforts in environment are an example for the whole world.

General Studies Question Paper 3
  • Economy

Mains Question:-

  • Clarify the concept of human development? Discuss India's performance on the parameters of the Human Development Index 2020.