Christianity Reforms and Christianity in India - Daily Current Affair Article

The reference

Christmas festival is celebrated on 25th December every year on the occasion of the birthday of Jesus Christ.

Introduction:-

  • Christianity, one of the largest religions of the entire world, was founded in Jerusalem by Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ was born on 25th December, with his birth, is considered the beginning of the Common Era is one of the year notations used for the Gregorian calendar, the world's most widely used calendar era.
  • The holy book of this religion is the Bible. In this religion, there is the worship of the Holy Trinity i.e. God (the Father) Jesus (the son of God), and the Holy Spirit. The Bible book is a compiled book combining the ancient writings of the Jews and the new writings of the Roman Catholic as directed by the Pope.
  • With the time, this religion became the state religion of the Roman Empire. It developed at a rapid pace as the Roman Empire enhanced. And the center of Roman Catholic Christianity is established in Vatican City. In course of time, there have been many evils in it, which later led to religious reform movements in this religion.

Religious reform movement in Christianity

Religion refers to the movement against the evil practices and orthodox elements prevailing in this religion, which began in the later period of the Renaissance.

Reasons for the Religious reform movement

  • The main cause of the religious reform movement was the influence of growing national consciousness. In the medieval period, the Pope became so powerful that he interfered in the political system and the power to change the king. In this way, the general public began to see the Pope as a "foreign Pope". Faith in the foreign pope declined.
  • The increasing immoral act in the church was one of the important reasons for the Reformation movement. The church used to raise money from the sale of various religious posts and various sacraments, such as confession of sin and death certificate. This aroused discontent in society.
  • The property of any person was seized if he acted beyond the rules decided by the Church. Due to all these reasons, the anger of the people against the church increased.
  • Increased contact with other countries due to the increase in geographical search, business, etc. It increases awareness.
  • With the invention of paper and printing press, copies of the religious books reached the common man, this enhanced the awareness of general people to understand the essence of religion, and they felt that the public has been tricked by the Church till now.
  • After the growth of the business, the merchant class became wealthy. The church withholded interest and tax on them, by the Pope spending that money in unproductive works, the faith of the business class was removed from the supremacy of church.
  • The Reformation movement received active support from the state machinery as the Pope's intervention was steadily increasing in the king and his responsibilities. This religious reform movement reached its peak with the support of the king.

The immediate cause of the Reformation movement began with Martin Luther King's opposition to the sale of the certificate of pardons.

Religious reform or Protestant Movement

  • In 1517, Martin Luther King, who was a monk of St. Augustine's Church in various sections of Germany, revolted from the church about the sale of the certificate of pardons. He hanged the 95-point religious reforms at the church gate so that Luther was expelled from the Church.
  • The move of Martin Luther King, was supported by the German rulers, and Luther established an independent German church with the king's support, and along with this, the Reformation movements began in the entire Christian world. In German, it was known as Protestant, Puritan in America, and Huguenot Protestant in France.
  • Luther's ideas were widely supported in countries such as Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.
  • In Britain, the situation became more serious, here a dispute arose between King Henry VIII and the Pope on the issue of divorce. The king proclaimed himself head of the Church. Finally, the impasse ended with the efforts of Queen Elizabeth of England when the Catholic Church was abolished as the State Church and the Church of England was established.

In this way, the reform of religion started in Germany and spread throughout the Christian world, and influenced the immediate society through multidimensional means.

Impact of Religious Reforms

  • The monopoly of Catholic churches came to an end during the Reformation. And Protestant and other state churches were established. This led to the separation of the state and religion, which later resulted in the concept of a secular state.
  • With this reform, human life was separated from orthodox superstitions, and humanism as a philosophy has just been confirmed.
  • This reform led to the end of the church's economic sanctions. The tendency to give loan on interest led to an increase in trade and the development of a capitalist economy.
  • This reform freed justice and tax systems from the authority of the Church and brought it under the jurisdiction of the state which led to the development of the concept of a powerful nation-state.
  • The growth of the capitalist economy led to the rise of inequality and inequality in society, which led to an increase in tension and class struggle in society. With this, due to the weakening of the control of the church, the marriage became just a contract.
  • With the development of press and paper, religious texts were written in different languages, which reduced the monopoly of Greek and Latin languages and developed other regional languages.
  • After this the Roman Catholic Churches attempted to reform themselves. From 1545 to 1563, the Roman Catholic Church held the Trent Reform Assembly and made many reforms in itself.

In this way, Christianity developed more after both reforms and spread from Europe to the whole world. In this sequence, Christianity reached India with geographical discoveries.

Christianity in India

Some historians argue that St. Thomas, one of the pupils of Jesus Christ, came to India in 52 AD and did some work in Tamil Nadu.

But the spread of Christianity mainly in India remained under two systems.

  • During the medieval period
  • Under the protection of British rule

During the medieval period

  • The discovery of the sea route between India and Europe by the Portuguese in 1498 led to trade and cultural exchanges between India and Europe. The Mughal emperors Akbar and Jahangir were also influenced by the Portuguese.
  • There was also an attempt by the Portuguese to convert the Mughal Emperor Akbar and Jahangir to Christianity. Scholars of Christianity were also invited to the Ibadatkhana built by Akbar for religious discussion.
  • Christian preachers continued to visit the court of Krishnadeva Rai, the greatest ruler of Vijay Nagar. In this way, Christians started coming to India in medieval India.

Under the protection of British rule

  • In 18th century India in which the British Empire was established as the successor of the Mughal Empire, during which Christian missionaries protected by the British Empire reached the Bengal and tribal areas and started the process of conversion.
  • Even today the Young Christian Missions preach Christianity in India. Education and medical aid are also provided by Christian missionaries.
  • Today, followers of Christianity enjoy minority status in India and the Indian Constitution guarantees the protection of their religious rights.

The conclusion

Christianity is today the largest religion in the entire world. It has about 2.168 billion followers worldwide, which is about 31% of the global population. It is the third-largest religion in India after Hinduism and Islam, with a population of 31.9 million. Christianity has become a strong and developed religion after continuous reforms, where the state system and economy have been kept separate from religion. Thus, it paves the way for the all-round development of human beings.

General Studies Question Paper 1
  • World History and Art and Culture

Mains Question:-

  • Discuss the stages of development of Christianity in India. How did Christianity, surrounded by the Age of Darkness, lead to Reformation?