Answer Writing Practice for UPSC IAS & UPPSC Mains Exam: Paper - III (General Studies – II) - 11 July 2020

Answer Writing Practice for UPSC IAS Mains Exam

Answer Writing Practice for UPSC IAS & UPPSC Mains Exam

UPSC Syllabus:

  • Paper - III : General Studies - II : Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations

Q. Enumerate the problems faced by the Slum Dwellers? How far is Odisha's JAGA Mission addressing the problems of the slum dwellers? (250 words)

Model Answer:

  • Why in News?
  • Introduction
  • Problems faced by the Slum Dwellers
  • Odisha’s JAGA Scheme and its effectiveness to address the problems of slum dwellers
  • Conclusion

Why in News?

  • Odisha recently won the 'World Habitat Award' for its JAGA Mission. This award is given by World Habitat, a UK-based organization, in partnership with United Nations Habitat, every year.


  • Slums are makeshift housing or shanties found especially in urban areas and are characterized by lack of basic facilities, squalor, and overcrowding. They are mostly occupied by migrant workers, unskilled labour, domestic workers and other such persons who cannot afford proper housing in the cities. Odisha’s JAGA Mission is a slum land titling project, benefiting a million urban-poor living in the slums.

Problems faced by the Slum Dwellers:

  • The slums in India are in very bad and deplorable conditions.
  • The slums in India are normally found in small, congested areas. For example, near railway lines and industries, rivers, water bodies, markets, etc.
  • The houses in slums are generally built with whatever materials are available to its dwellers and they are normally not permanent in nature. This creates complications especially during the monsoons, when there may be flooding due to heavy rains.
  • The availability of clean drinking water is also a big problem faced by slum dwellers.
  • Used and dirty water is not properly disposed off through covered pipes but is just roughly directed away from the settlements. In the absence of proper sewage or waste disposal systems, garbage keeps accumulating near the slums.
  • There is a lack of proper sanitation facilities, and people tend to defecate in public.
  • The existence of such conditions makes it easier for people living here to contact diseases and easily spread infectious diseases because people live in close quarters.
  • There is also an absence of a regulated supply of electricity in slums this makes the living conditions worse.
  • The standard of living here is extremely

Odisha’s JAGA Scheme and its effectiveness to address the problems of slum dwellers:

In Odisha, 23% of the urban population resides in slums. With a beneficiary coverage of about 1.2 million people, the JAGA Mission is the largest slum titling intervention in India. The JAGA Mission aims to undertake comprehensive upgrading of all the slums in the state.

  • JAGA Mission works towards transforming the slums into liveable habitat with all necessary civic infrastructure and services at par with the better-off areas.
  • To continuously improve the standard of the infrastructure and services and access to livelihood opportunities.
  • This Mission also aims at leveraging and converging various schemes, programs, funding opportunities by strengthening the collaboration among various institutes and stakeholders.
  • It will also provide advisory support to the Government of Odisha to examine options for policy reforms required for sustainable transformation of the lives of urban poor.
  • The Mission aims to transform slums into liveable habitats and remove the stigma associated with being a slum dweller.

Slums are often seen as encroachments and slum dwellers, even after they stay in slums for decades, are not provided with any legal rights over the land. This illegality further condemns slums — which are an urban reality in Indian cities. Formal recognition of land rights allows for cleaner cities and better living conditions for slum dwellers.

The process of handing Land Recognition Certificates to slum dwellers with drone surveys of the settlements along with door-to-door household surveys has cut down on the time taken. This has made the slum dwellers the legitimate owners of the land and improves the overall livelihood of the slum dwellers.


To date, JAGA Mission is, successful in addressing one basic problem of the slum dwellers which is of providing land rights. After Land Recognition Certificates distribution, the focus will now shift to individual and public toilets, household tap water supply, LED Street lighting, skill improvement, etc. We should not ignore the problem but recognize the systemic inequities and manage them effectively.