Answer Writing Practice for UPSC IAS & UPPSC Mains Exam: Paper - III (General Studies – II) - 11 January 2020

Answer Writing Practice for UPSC IAS Mains Exam

Answer Writing Practice for UPSC IAS & UPPSC Mains Exam

UPSC Syllabus:

  • Paper-III: General Studies -II (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)

Q. The success of a policy depends mainly on the process of its implementation. Enumerate the six guiding principles which can be applied to any large transformation scheme, as laid down by the Swachh Bharat Mission. (250 words)

Model Answer:

  • Why in News?
  • Introduction: Lessons learned from the Swachh Bharat Mission
  • 6 guiding principles that can be applied to any large transformation scheme
  • Conclusion

Why in News?

The journey of Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) from 2014 has laid down six important guiding principles that can be applied to any large transformation scheme, this is termed as the ABCEDF of implementation.


The Swachh Bharat Mission is a mass movement to create a cleaner and healthier India. It focused mainly to change the behavior of the citizens towards open defecation, toilet use, manual scavenging, etc. From 2014 onwards the government faced various difficulties. The biggest among them was the problem of implementation. The government, therefore, came up with 6 guiding principles of implementing a big transformation scheme.

6 guiding principles that can be applied to any large transformation scheme:

A- Align:

  • In order to make a transformation scheme successful, continuous engagement with the states is needed.
  • After the announcement of the Swachh Bharat Mission, the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation informed all the Chief Ministers, collectors, sarpanches throughout India.
  • Through learning workshops, informal gatherings and WhatsApp groups, all the stakeholders should be in constant touch with one another. So as to ensure that sanitation remained on top of everyone’s agenda.
  • The three layers of the PM-CM-DM model working in cohesion is the first and most important step towards policy translating into real delivery.

B- Believe:

  • The next important step was building a team of people who believed that the goal is achievable.
  • Younger people with a fresh perspective believe more easily and focus on finding creative solutions.
  • The Swachh Bharat Mission brought in a unique blend of young professionals and experienced bureaucrats, at the center and in the states, and each person quickly became a believer.

C- Communicate:

  • The Swachh Bharat Mission is mainly a behaviour change programme.
  • Communication at all levels was fundamental for its success.
  • An army of trained grassroots volunteers called Swachagrahis was created, who went from door to door to communicate the message of swachhata.
  • The SBM attempted to make sanitation glamorous by engaging extensively with the media, leveraging popular culture, and associating Bollywood stars, sportspersons, and other influencers to promote the message of sanitation.

D- Democratise:

  • It nudged people to realize that sanitation is not an individual good, but a community good.
  • SBM made everyone a stakeholder and sanitation became everyone’s business.

E- Evaluate:

  • It became important to encourage third-party monitoring of progress and evaluate outputs, outcomes, and impacts to reinforce the credibility and keep the implementers motivated.
  • Organizations such as the World Bank, UNICEF, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and WHO conducted various assessments of sanitation coverage and usage, successes and areas of improvement, as well as the health, economic and social impacts of the SBM.

F- Follow Through:

  • Recently, a forward-looking 10-year sanitation strategy, articulating the goal of moving from ODF to ODF Plus was published.
  • This post-delivery follow-through is critical to ensure that the change becomes the norm. Only then will the delivery be truly complete.


Learning from these guiding principles, the government is continuing to deliver basic services to the people of India. In line with the above guiding principle, the government is focusing to design the Jal Jeevan Mission based on the ABCDEF of implementation.

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