Answer Writing Practice for UPSC IAS & UPPSC Mains Exam: Paper - III (General Studies – II) - 02 July 2020

Answer Writing Practice for UPSC IAS Mains Exam

Answer Writing Practice for UPSC IAS & UPPSC Mains Exam

UPSC Syllabus:

  • Paper - III : General Studies - II : Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations

Q. Should India increase its investment on Maritime Scientific Research? Discuss in the backdrop of the Shiyan Incident. (250 words)

Model Answer:

  • Why in News?
  • Introduction: Shiyan Incident
  • China’s expansive Marine Research Fleet
  • Reasons for India to invest more on its Maritime Scientific Research
  • Conclusion

Why in News?

It has been reported recently that the Indian Navy “chased out” a Chinese vessel — Shiyan 1— from the Andaman Sea.


Shiyan 1 is a research vehicle built-in 2009. Currently, it is being operated by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and is part of Beijing’s growing marine research fleet. It has a strength of 50 vessels at present. Shiyan 1 now operates as part of the “national fleet” for Marine Scientific Research.

China’s expansive Marine Research Fleet:

  • China’s expansiveinvestment in marine scientific research is part of its rise as a great maritime power and dovetails into its regional strategies.
  • China had brought together the marine research activitiesof multiple governmental agencies, ministries and commercial entities like oil companies under one administrative framework.
  • After leveraging marine science diplomacy to good effect in the South China Seaover the last many years, China has begun to extend to the Indian Ocean.
  • In 2018, Shiyan-3 invited Pakistanscientists to join a research expedition in the Arabian Sea.
  • These incidents should make India expect more in the Indian Ocean littoral in the coming days.

Reasons for India to invest more on its Maritime Scientific Research:

  • The Shiyan incident is a useful reminder to India on the need to invest more in maritime scientific research.
  • China is increasing its Maritime Scientific Ambition. Beijing’s expansive investmentin marine scientific research is part of its rise as a great maritime power.
  • India needs to strengthen its national capabilitiesin this regard.
  • India should also look towards deepening its scientific cooperationwith various partners in the maritime domain.
  • Along with the US, Japan, Australia, and France, India should develop mechanisms for collaborative researchin the maritime scientific domain. This would provide a sound basis for eventual engagement with China on marine scientific research.


Earlier, China’s marine science research was confined to near seas in the Western Pacific. It now extends to seas all around the world. About half of the marine scientific fleet is reportedly devoted to distant seas. The above discussion shows that China is increasing its Marine research very rapidly and India should invest more in its marine science research

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