Answer Writing Practice for UPSC IAS & UPPSC Mains Exam: Paper - II (General Studies – I) - 14 August 2019

Answer Writing Practice for UPSC IAS Mains Exam


Answer Writing Practice for UPSC IAS & UPPSC Mains Exam


UPSC Syllabus:

  • Paper-II: General Studies - I (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

Q. Despite rapid growth and development, a high proportion of Indian population suffers from deprivation and poverty. Elucidate the major challenges faced by India for poverty alleviation. (250 words)

Model Answer:

  • Introduction
  • Discuss the major challenges faced by India in poverty alleviation.
  • Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

Poverty is prevalent and suffered by most countries all across the globe. Concerns and commitments on reducing and eliminating poverty have been expressed repeatedly but it is still prevalent and uncontrolled, despite increasing growth and development. Poverty elimination is an important step towards creating conditions which would enable every individual to develop and rise to their fullest stature.

Major challenges faced by India for poverty alleviation:

  • In India, there is lack of a quantitative method to know the actual size of the population lying below the poverty line. Though, the proportion of population below the poverty line has declined over time. Various committees like Y.K. Alagh Committee, Lakdawala Committee, Suresh Tendulkar Committee and even the task force set up recently under the Vice-Chairman of NITI Aayog were unable to come up with a realistic poverty line.The first step in tackling poverty is that we acknowledge the extent of poverty and measure it.
  • There is lack of a systematic attempt to identify people who are poor and determine their needs, address them and enable them to move above the poverty line.
  • The resources allocated to anti-poverty programmes are inadequate and there is a tacit understanding that targets will be curtailed according to fund availability. For example, many states does not provide guarantee 100 days of work under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (mgnrega).
  • There is a geographical dimension to poverty. Poverty is mainly concentrated in certain parts of India. There should be extra focus on these areas to universalize access and applying indicators that assess performance-based improvement of the most vulnerable in those areas.
  • High population growth rate is one of major challenge for poverty alleviation in India. This further leads to high level of illiteracy, poor health care facilities and lack of access to financial resources.
  • Ever increasing prices of even basic commodities is another reason of increasing poverty. RBI’s Inflation Targeting prove less effective in controlling price rise of essential commodities sometimes. Many a times, such macro level inflation regulation measures do not regulate the grass root level price. A person below the poverty line finds it difficult to survive in times of high inflation in the economy.
  • The prevalence of Caste system in India has increased inequality in the Indian society. This has led to unequal distribution of income and resources, which is another reason of difficulty of poverty alleviation in India.
  • A large number of poverty alleviation programmes have been initiated, however, their functioning is not up to the mark. Sometimes, it is seen that there is a lack of an attempt to identify people who are poor and address their problems.
  • Poverty is inter-related to other problems of underdevelopment. In urban areas, people often have access to health and education but due to poverty people face problems like overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, pollution, insecure houses, etc,. Rural poverty is mainly due to less access to education, health and many other basic services. The focus of the poverty alleviation schemes of the government should be based on the specific problems that are being faced in the particular areas and not on the overall problem of poverty.
  • Poverty alleviation among tribals is slow. This is because of persistent backwardness and inequality, which have led to concentration of poverty among the tribal population in India..

CONCLUSION

Poverty must be completely eradicated from India as soon as possible. The government must come up with a proper formula of uplifting every section of people from poverty and work towards achieving equality and prosperity throughout India.

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